The Hatewatch blog is managed by the staff of the Intelligence Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, an Alabama-based civil rights organization.

New FBI Report Confirms Extremist Activity in U.S. Military

By Mark Potok on July 18, 2008 - 12:01 pm, Posted in Extremists in the Military, Neo-Nazi

Two years ago, the Southern Poverty Law Center wrote to Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld asking him to investigate the extent to which white supremacists had infiltrated the U.S. military and urging him to adopt a zero-tolerance policy on racist extremists.

We had just published “A Few Bad Men,” a report containing significant evidence that thousands of potentially violent neo-Nazis, skinheads and other white supremacists were learning the art of warfare as members of the armed services. Pressure to meet manpower goals for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had led recruiters and commanders to relax the military standards designed to weed out these extremists.

Forty members of Congress joined our call for an investigation. U.S. Senator Richard Shelby, an Alabama Republican, also urged Rumsfeld to adopt a zero-tolerance policy. “Military extremists present an elevated threat to both their fellow servicemembers and the public,” Shelby wrote. “We witnessed with Timothy McVeigh that today’s racist extremist may become tomorrow’s domestic terrorist.”

Three months later, the Pentagon — apparently without any investigation whatsoever — responded by rejecting our findings as “inaccurate and misleadingly alarmist.”

This week, NBC News producer Jim Popkin uncovered a new, unpublished FBI report that reinforces our findings. In fact, it documents a sort of revolving door between the military and white supremacist organizations. According to Popkin, the FBI found that extremists are recruiting military veterans to their organizations and also encouraging their followers “to infiltrate the military as ‘ghost skins,’ in order to recruit and receive training for the benefit of the extremist movement.”

Popkin quotes the FBI report as saying that in 2006, the National Socialist Movement received a number of inquiries from active-duty Army and Marine personnel stationed in Afghanistan and Iraq about joining the neo-Nazi organization. “Whether as a result of group recruitment efforts or self-recruitment by active military personnel sympathetic to white supremacist extremist causes, FBI information derived from reliable, multiple sources documents white supremacist extremist activity occurring at some military bases,” the report states.

Now will the Defense Department act on this threat?

  • sgt

    Well it took a while for me to get back to this page. “Sorry to hear after 20 years, I am only ranked sgt.” If you had a half a brain you would know that there are technically 8 levels of sgt. After that many years I need not disclose what level I am at. Your buddy who at 24 made sgt. did good if he was active duty. If he was guard or reserve, he is about par for rank due to years of service. And your native friends being a peacefull people. You found a group that just bit their tounges in respect for your “comrade”. I live between two reservations, I have so most of my life. I know exactly how they really are. Keep in mind I never said I don’t like them, or that they are scum. I am just speaking the truth wich is sometimes a little bitter tasting.

  • Culturegeist

    I try to deal with facts Richard, don’t get bent out of shape if the truth offends you.

    It’s clear your internalized hatred, sweeping generalizations and pontificating left-field nonsense about media conspiracy & “socialists agenda” have left you bitter and confused.

    I doubt you’d know a socialist if he walked up and asked you for the time of day. But that’s OK, your “Anyone who disagrees with me is an idiot’ mentality is as contrary to real American values as it is typical of the demented Neo-Con mindset of the past 8 years. Over 4,000 dead Americans Richard; feeling safer now?

    By the way, speaking of protecting the nation it was a Democrat from New York who pulled this nation out of the depression and guided us through WWII – and a Democrat from Independence, MO who dropped the nuke twice to end it.

    That moronic gas-bag dimwit of a president occupying the White House is about the only “Hawk” I know who gagged his way through lip-service Air National Guard commitments to duck serving in Vietnam (records of his service can”t even be found) who had the gall to criticize political opponents who actually served in combat in Vietnam.

    So the media is all part of a vast liberal plot?

    Chris Matthews and the rest of the “GOP fun bunch” on Fox News will be amused to find that out.

    Please holster that “last man standing” BS. If I’m interested in hearing the warped homicidal fantasies of a right-wing nut bag I can always buy a bag of Cheetos and read the “Turner Diaries”.

    The last five sentences are toxic psycho-babble by the way, it’s simply mind-boggling that you spend that much time and energy on hating people you don’t know.

    Give my regards to the Klavern

  • Freedom Crusader

    Sorry to hear it took you 20 some years serving my country and yet you’re still ranked as a “sgt”(according to your poster name). A comrade of mine joined the military at 18 years of age and became a sgt at 24. Ironically he is a Native American and proud of it. And I met his family and people and they were absolutely nothing how you described them, it was quite the contrary. Probaly the most peaceful group of people I ever met.

    However, White Supremacists in the military is a grave and gathering threat which is why I have to agree with bipartisan concerns of both the Dems and the GOPs. I firmly agree the FBI was speaking the truth when they reported this through their hard work in investiagting such extremists of the far right. No matter how partisan and biased these White Extremists who post on here crying like an old woman saying “what about them?” (as referring to Blacks, Jews, Hispanics, Natives, Asians, and Arabs) soley because they felt “singled out” and afraid to admit it that White Supremacists in the military is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Frankly, I’d rather see Gays and Lesbians reinstated back into the Armed Forces than keeping the Skinheads and Neo-Nazis in the Armed Forces. Not because I’m Gay or Pro-Gay(in fact I voted to banned same sex marriages, and this sacred institution is for man and woman) not even “Bi” but regardless of that, there was over 100 qualified “Arabic transitators” who happened to be Gay who could have been of a great service for the U.S. Militrary and intelligence. Instead they were removed and the military struggled with replacements by extending longer tours for orginal Armed Service Personel. Skinheads and White Supremacists are too dangerous to remain in the military. And that’s why the committee is taking action.

    Furthermore, I am pleased that many organizations nationwide are united to combat the WN movement in the U.S. White Supremacists have no allies other than there own. Many of them are fighting amongst themselves. True unity comes from brotherhood services in the military. As a White man myself, I have many comrades from Blacks, Hispanics, Natives and Jews alike and together we fight White Power! Like a band of brothers. This is why the White Supremacists are desperate by taking extreme measures such as TERRORISM.

    And its a sad thing they want to destroy this great country, our Democracy and mostly our FREEDOM.

  • Benjamin

    I want to say something about your dubious claims you make here and on another issue of hate groups and their locations and organization, especially in the US Military. I saw a few of your reports and I just feel as an average white guy who has to pay taxes and votes Republican I can express my 1st Amendment right to say what I feel about your claims here and else where. Since you can attack people such as myself its time people like me strike back.

    1. Hate groups in the US Military is like saying if a your white and dislike a black person or their color your in a hate group. These are lofty claims. I see a lot of anti-white sentiment in the US Military by minorities so before you make assumptions its white folks after the Black and Hispanics back your sources up! I know you get a disgruntled soldier who feels cheated because he or she is not white and now the whole military has hate groups. How about hate groups on all sides? How about reviewing the person records and military evaluations and such when you gather this info and before you categorize them as neo-nazis.

    2. This organization in the past has reported that the US Army Green Berets had been infiltrated by white supremacist groups several times before but yet you have no FACTUAL evidence to this. Just because a former green beret gets shot at in Ruby Ridge almost 20 years ago does not make him or the former soldiers who supported him racist. Get your facts straight before you print your lies. Besides a person can dislike anyone he wishes. Their is nothing in the oath of a soldier to not be unbiased and sensitive to certain persuasions.

    3. I live in a Altoona Pennsylvania. On your hate group map you indicate the Skinheads are active here or have some kind of organization here. Can you please give me their address or phone number here? Because I don’t see them here but I do see minority Black and Hispanic gang bangers here from both the Crips and Bloods every day. When I say everyday that means I can show where they live at and where they sell their drugs. Better yet if you where to contact the Pennsylvania Attorney Generals office the gang problems are more prevalent than your so called hate crimes and more troubling. Before you spew out your lies and bullcrap you better start backing your claims. And just because I disagree with your organization doesn’t make me a skinhead. You people are so ignorant it reeks with communism and socialism.

    4. You disagree with the American Legion on a report they produced about immigration and crime and site they report dubious cases. You attack the American Legion, an organization that has helped millions of Veterans in this country. Yet you feel your right and they are wrong. Your organization claim to be saints. Something the Catholic church doesn’t even claim. You people are promoting a secular religion thus a religious group in itself as well. How many of you are Southern Baptists?

    5. Your organization is just another puppet working for a greater disorder or New World Order just as the ACLU is. Another organization such as yours that attempts to destroy the good and the good laws in order to create your own version of law and order. Your organization continues to throw fuel on the fire in this nation, not promoting tolerance. Wasn’t Martin Luther King a Republican? Not a liberal I can say that for sure.

    6. I honestly believe your organization and others like such as the ACLU should be listed as Terrorist organizations. Thus in affect ending your decades of hate mongering and vast claims of hatred and hate mongering. While you cite hate groups, their locations and their leaders, addresses and such how about yours as well.

    7. I wish to point out there is no where in the US Constitution that it says anyone has to like or love anyone because of their race, color, ethnic background or religion. Your organization is all about control of people who wish to express their individual rights. When they disagree your call them a hatemonger because they ideologically disagree. So when Whites are the minority in America will you still punish the white man?

    8. Since when is hating someone a crime against humanity? Obviously God has hated ethnic cultures and religions as much as he does sin but I don’t see your organization going after him? Well maybe because none of you believe in him. And if he did make his appearance he’d wipe you all off the map.

    9. You people in your organization need to sit back and stop drinking the liberal hysteria kool aid and wake the hell up. You or your organization is not going to change everyones views or others opinions based on the trash you write up. The facts are facts and you all hate it. Most the gangs in America are non-white and they promote drugs and violence. But if there was a white-hate group they are more of a threat to America by your standards. No they are a threat to the non-white gangs! Turf war over drugs indeed. You all need to smell the coffee and get in the real world and out of fantasy land.

    10. When people realize that your world views are not the same as everyone else’s you attack them because of it. I have supported the Constitution so assholes like you can speak your anti-God, anti-White, anti-American, anti-Military, anti-Christian lies long enough. I think its time people realize that your organization is anti-white and anti-Christian and you all need to come out on CNN and FOX and just admit it. Because you all hiding in the closet is not helping.

    So yes I do compare you to Hezbullah, Hamas, Al-Queda, The PLO, and other various terror organizations around the world. You promote your version as the only way things can be.

    So tell me how that would make you feel if you were treate like Al-Queda?


  • Richard

    I can tell that some of you “Great Southern Trend Kill”, “Culturegeist” mostly have no clue what you are talking about. If you are going to rely on quotes and articles from the Times, Newsweek or any of these other lefty loon pubs for your information than you have some serious mental problems.
    You liberals would rather be on your knees pandering to your socialist base than fighting for whats really important.
    How about for once listening to someone else who has some first hand experience in some of these matters.

    I swear, you wannabe free love hippies are ruining this countries culture, values and anything else you can get your slippery mits into.
    If it wasnt for us Neo-Cons, you flaming libs wouldnt have any of these freedoms that you take for granted.
    You all would probably would be in Canada dodging your commitments. Fortunately, Canada has wised up and no longer takes your scared kind.

    Sometimes I wish we could split this country in half. All you liberal weirdos can take the left side, and us hard working, blue collar, god fearing, normal people will take the right.
    You lefties can have all the illegals and muslim terrorists that your frail selves desire. You can all hug Al Gore and give him all your money for some carbon credits.
    Disband your military and put everyone on welfare.

    Then we’ll see who is left standing.

  • sgt

    After 20 years in the Army, I’d say I have a better idea than most of you, as to how bad it really is. True there are extremist in the military. White, Muslim, Black, Latino. True you may find that the Whites are conected to an organized group. However what you don’t see is that there are far more blacks than whites, that are active members of a gang. You don’t see theses facts because the documentation of such is forbidden by the comanders, do to the fear of some soldier or Marine playing the race card. I have councelled 100s of soldiers for racial slander, coments, jokes etc. Mostly white and few from other races. I was told not to council others due to the headache and paperwork they will cause by more than one command. For the senate committee to take the measure of banning it would be the end of the american superpower. There are militia groups that want to overthrow the government, but there first order it to protect family and country. They will destroy any one who wants to desicrate our flag. That is not just pro-white groups either. Blacks, and native americans are included in that. Speaking of the natives. Most I have ever met hate all races other than their perticullar tribe. And they are very vocal about it too. But if you ask them why there in the military, they will sum it up in one word. “country”
    On an other subject about blacks….Drugs. The amount of drugs on a military installation is jaw dropping. Mostly speed, and steroids. Of all the people I have seen in twenty years butsted. Most of them have been black, and all affiliated with gangs. The latinos are really the only ones who have not caused to many issues. Most are just happy to belong, and be making an honest living. On to the subject of muslims. I personly believe they should not be allowed. Any service memeber who has taken training on anti-terrorism could tell you alot of reasons why. I don’t believe you can make an opinion without education on terrorism, domestic or forgien. Wich is the basis of every column on this page

  • Freedom Crusader

    “The most anti-semitic ethnic group are African-Americans followed closely by Hispanic American.”

    Have you even bothered to reading this article?

    I guess some of these idiots don’t really know what’s going on so I can only assumed its not worth the essence of time debating them on the subject of conversation. And i`ll just leave it at that.

    However, I have to agree with the vast majority in this post that White Extremists in the military shall not be tolerated. I strongly detest their presence in the armed forces and I hope they Senate committee will act accordently by taking appropiate measures to ensure integrity wthin the U.S. military. These White Extremists are giving the military a bad name and a bad reputation. And hopefully these White Extremists will be banned.

  • Realist

    The Great Souther Trend Kill wrote: “Tells me that you’re also an anti-semite which is synonymous with White Supremacists idealogy and Neo-Nazism.”

    Completely untrue.

    The most anti-Semitic ethnic group in America are African Americans, followed closely by Hispanic Americans.

    So why doesn’t the SPLC ever publish anything regarding the prevalence of anti-Semitism among Blacks and Hispanics?

  • the Great Southern Trend Kill

    Most gangs are largely made up of troubled youths ranging from ages 12 fo 19 yrs old. When they do join the armed forces of the U.S.Military. They do it to better themselves by escaping the dangerous gang lifestyle and to receive college funds as promised by the armed service so that they can become productive members of society. To say that they’re in the army only to become terrorists when they return is pure hyperbole. Its the nexus of exaggeration by the right wing nuts to shadow the real extremists–the White Supremacists in the military.

  • borderraven

    Gangbangers of all races have infitrated all branches of the US military, so they can get training. Look at their old unit photos for gang signs, tattoos, and hate symbols. Most lowlifes don’t make a career of the military, they usually fall out due to dicipline problems.

  • Culturegeist


    False alarm? Really?

    Your somewhat vague assumptions about a “rainbow coalition” of “extremists” including Latino and African-American gang members existing in the US military may or may not be true – but there’s no evidence to support it.

    What we do know as FACT is that organized groups of US soldiers aligned with white supremacist groups have existed within the ranks of the military for years; particularly the US Army.

    For example in December of 1995 the nation was shocked when 20 year-old Private James Burmeister and 21 year-old Private Malcom Wright, then members of the 82nd Airborne Division stationed at Fort Bragg, NC, were charged in Fayeteville, NC in the racially-motivated shooting of a black couple; Jackie Burden and Michael James.

    Both men and a third paratrooper who drove the car, were all aligned with a skinhead organization – Burmeister, sentenced to life for the murders, later died in a Federal prison in Missouri at age 31.

    A 1994 report by the House Armed Services Committee found racial jokes and slurs common on 4 of 19 US Army bases they surveyed – and organized skinhead activity amongst active duty soldiers on several of the installations.

    A 1992 report by the Army’s Criminal Investigation Command found:

    “One soldier at Fort Carson, Colo., participated in skinhead activities. Two others at Fort Stewart, Ga., were caught traveling with a neo-Nazi organization. A gang of soldiers called the “Chosen Few” at Fort Lee, Va., was investigated on suspicion of drug use and a robbery. The report also mentioned at least one other gang-related incident in Germany.” Excerpted from New York Times, 12.13.95

    The Times article also notes:

    “Off-duty soldiers at Fort Bragg have been seen wearing the unofficial uniform of white supremacist groups: black boots and white laces, red suspenders, flight jackets and chains.

    “The warning signs have been there, and now it seems to be getting worse,” said George Withers, a top aide to Representative Ronald V. Dellums, Democrat of California, who issued the Armed Services Committee report.”

    This was 1995, I doubt it’s gotten better. There have been numerous examples of caches of US military weapons and hardware, including .50 caliber machine guns and gernades being removed from bases by servicemen aligned with white supremacist and neo-Nazi organizations.

    Are there some Crips, Bloods and other gang members in the military?

    Probably, but to try and compare them with organized hate groups who are using their military connections to recruit people, steal government property and engage in racially-motivated killings as in the Burmeister case isn’t a valid comparison.

    Nor have they engaged in anything close to the mass-execution of innocent Americans as in the Timothy McVeigh case.

    Sorry Richard, contrary to your last sentence, it’s actually the violence, disregard for human life, hatred and lawbreaking of these soldiers aligned with the white supremacist movement that singled them out – not the SPLC.

    Check your facts before you throw out assumptions.


  • Slavyanski

    While WNs will generally proclaim themselves against the establishment and anti-Bush, for all practical purposes they have traditionally supported the status quo and the Republicans. Both David Duke and Don Black supported Bush for president twice, all their rhetoric about “wars for Israel” notwithstanding. While WNs will rant about the neocons and their pundits over the issue of Israel or Jews, they will often quote and cite those articles from the pundits which express views with which they agree, which means they are connected with mainstream conservatism no matter how much they claim to the contrary.

    In fact, many WNs claim that they want Obama to win, but I am quite sure that they will not be able to bring themselves to vote for him, and it is very possible that some WN celebrities like the aforementioned Duke and Black may issue some call to vote for McCain in the near future. Last two times it was because Gore’s running mate was Liberman, and in 2004 it was because Kerry was found to be “part Jewish”.

  • The Great Southern Trend Kill

    “You are a neocon(totalitarian capitalist surveilliance police statist under the oilgarchy of the zionists)”

    First let me clarify my position since you seemed to jump to an inadequated conclusion that’s grossly inconsistant and well taken out of context.
    When I posted the term “Neo-Con” (not neocon) I was merely referring to the extreme right which is regarded as Neo-Conservatives, Neo-Con is a widely used popular short abrev referring as such. Whereas, your defination of “neocon” is actually a code word used by many White Extremists/Supremacists such as yourself in referrence to Jewish people. This coded term of yours is not widely used or accepted in maintream political arena.
    So to speak, calling me a neocon would be like calling Adolf Hitler as secret Jew and a fake. They don’t belong and that is your illogical fallacy.
    Secondly you noted “police” and “surveilliance” as if you have something to hide? If so, then you should consider surrendering to the law enforcement with whatever extreme activities you may be involved in, that’s consistant with the violation of all aspects of the federal law. Because of the anti-government rhetoric you employed in your rants. And that’s why I strongly support such “surveilliance” on radical extremists of the Neo-Con (or other terrorists groups.)


    Tells me that you’re also an anti-semite which is synonymous with White Supremacists idealogy and Neo-Nazism.
    However, I’m sorry to disappoint you that I’m not Jewish and I have stated this before in another post. But I am a proud American. Because of that, you go on to say this–


    Didn’t I ever tell you in another post where I stated that I never voted for George W. Bush??? In spite of this, as usual, all of you segregassionists/national socialists would go so far to call me a “liberal” or “coommunists” et al. So if I’m for the secure for our borders and no Amensty for illegals who are suspected felons for serious crimes ranging from rapes, robberies, drug traffiking and murders etc.(note that crossing the border is a misdeamor offense, if you are caught).
    Just to give you “Anti-Zionists” a little clarity of where I stand is also most likely not a “liberal”. And that’s a typical measure for White Extremists to always assumed this.

  • anti-zionist secessionist movement

    You are a neocon (totaltarian capitalist surveillance police statist under the oilgarchy of the zionists) Great Southern Trendkill.

    No informed person would ever confuse (police state limbaughim) with the SPLC decried “far-right extremism” of the league of the south /
    Please stop slandering the “extremist right” with the “Neo-Con” label. Your surveillance ideology where everything must be done to protect the state and the zionist rich is “Neo-Con” and pro Bush. Again: you are a neocon.

  • The Great Southern Trend Kill

    If the report was conducted by the FBI investigators working on this topic of White Extremists in the U.S. Military. Surely their findings are proven to be legit. Which is why the the Senate is very concerned about this. Any reports conducted by the FBI, DOJ and other law enforcement intelligence agency is strictly for the sole purpose of intelligence gathering based on how serious the grave and gathering threat this really is. And to say that this is a “False Alarm” is quite naive and ignorant.
    To ignore such immenent threats of domestic terrorism by White Extremists or Muslim Radicals , then history is bound to repeat itself.
    Heretofore, this kind of mentality of the ill-gotten, ill-informed weaklings of the-caught-off-guard types is the main reason why WTC and 9/11 happened. Because nobody took those threats seriously.
    And that’s why I applaud this article, is to inform the public about the dangerous elements of White Extreminisms of the far-right(Neo-Con).

  • White XL Tee

    Slavyanski made a great point. If one were to look at the history of these street gangs and juxtapose with the White Extremists groups, there is a major difference between the two that many of the Neo-Con wing nuts failed to examined. Many Neo-Cons seemed to forget history rather easily as if they have a short memory. However, history tells us that these low level street gangs such as Bloods and Crips and the like, have never set off a bomb that’s comparisible to Timothy McVeigh`s. Or let alone do these people have the necessary skills, knowledge or desire to infuse or create such WMD such as McVeigh`s. Whereas White Extremists have done so. There have been numerous law enforcement reports that “patriotic” militia and paramilitia groups members who were arrested in the past have had some kind of bomb making materials in their possessions. Many of them belong to White Supremacists groups and/or are associated with them individually and anonymously to protect the interests and integrity of such groups if they were to be arrested such as in McVeigh`s case. And it is widely rumored that he was a member of the Aryan Republican Army which is a popular theory. And many of these White Supremacists groups are very anti-Government whereas a street gang is not.

  • Slavyanski

    While the military may indeed have former crips and other gang-bangers in it, none of these groups repeatedly talk about overthrowing the US government, or some kind of apocalyptic “Day of the Rope.”

  • Richard

    Another false alarm. Although you may be right that their are white extremists in the military, there are also black extremists, Latino Extremists, LA gang members, crips, bloods you name it.
    To single out the white hate groups is typical of the bias of this organization.

  • The Great Southern Trend Kill

    U.S. Senator Richard ShelbyR-Alabama quotes:

    “Military extremists presents an elevated threat to their servicemembers and the public. We witnessed with Timothy McVeigh that today`s racist extremists may become tomorrow`s domestic terrorists.”–Unquote.

    Well said. And I hope many of the Senate members will realize the grave and dire threats these “racist extremists” pose upon the public as a whole. And White Supremacy in the military needs to be addressed for the sake and safety of the American people. As serious as it seems, the Dept. Of Defense must take action.

  • Al Champagne

    If there is any time to adapt the zero tolerance policy, it is now. You think these guys are going to accept a black Commander in Chief?

  • Laura Minor

    My husband is a 100% service-connected disabled Marine (after having served in combat for nearly 30 years). While the research behind your article is commendable, you do a tremendous disservice to the USMC by mal-adapting the well-known USMC slogan. In my experience touring with the USO, it is true that there are extremists, but I also believe – from direct observation – that the Corps is the least racist group of any Americans, much less the military. They bleed together and are Brother Marines first – not Black, Asian, White, or Hispanic Marines. Please rethink the title of your article, but keep up the good work at the Center.

  • anti-zionist secessionist movement

    Gang bangers with extensive criminal backgrounds are now allowed into the warm body starved Israeli war machine.

    So what are you getting at, zionist crony? The standards have been relaxed across the board. You expect the Army to do its damnedest to filter out crap and keep the urine? Your pulling hairs.

    The wikipedia entry on Timothy McVeigh is extremely vague. There is no reference to his ideology whatsoever that you speak of as if it were common knowledge that he was linked to this group, that group, anybody who is an “extremist” in one way or another. Throughout the TV coverage of Timothy McVeigh, I do not remember any specific references to his ideology or that of his cohorts. The SPLC, a lobby heavily involved in government and media, who supposedly tracked and baited the groups involved in the OKC, never provided any ideology behind the attack. To this day the OKC bombers are just “extremists”. Wow, that’s useful. One would never expect “extremists” to bomb innocent people.

    Bottom line “Timothy McVeigh” is a canard. Like “OMG teh David Duke!” or “hitler”.

    Of course the Army atracts boneheads who want to “kick ass against the Hajjis!” “America F– yeah!”. Who is the spokesman for these idiots, the SPLC Rabbis Kosher stamped beefcake Rush Limbaugh, or a “neo-nazi”: a blanket term that could describe a harmless reader of or