Pan-Aryanism Binds Hate Groups in America and Europe

· John Tyndall, long-time head of the neofascist British National Party (BNP) and a friend of American neo-Nazi William Pierce, travels to the United States to speak. Tyndall's tour, sponsored by chapters of the Populist Party, Georgia-based white supremacist veteran Ed Fields and others, includes stops in Atlanta, California, Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey and North Carolina.

· Far-right U.S. talk show host Tom Valentine begins transmitting an hour-long shortwave program on Nashville-based WWCR that is heard around the world. The program, which effectively makes Valentine the father of far-right shortwave radio in America, is officially sponsored by The Spotlight, the conspiracy-minded newspaper of the anti-Semitic Liberty Lobby. By 2001, there will be more than 1,100 hours a month of extremist programming on U.S.-based shortwave.

· North Carolinian Harold Covington, a veteran of the international neo-Nazi scene, moves to Britain for several months. According to Searchlight, a British antifascist magazine, he helps the founders of Combat 18 (C-18), a British neofascist group, devise a "militant and aggressive" program.

Later, Searchlight reports, Covington will provide a U.S. post office box for C-18's illegal propaganda operations. In a letter, Covington says he is in Europe to promote "a worldwide racial resistance."

· Andreas Strassmeir returns to the United States and, through arrangements made by white supremacist U.S. attorney Kirk Lyons, ends up at Elohim City, a Christian Identity enclave in Oklahoma.

In September 1995, Strassmeir will leave Elohim City amid questions about why Timothy McVeigh tried to contact him there a couple of weeks before the Oklahoma City bombing. Saying he had merely met McVeigh briefly at a 1993 gun show, Strassmeir will be spirited out of the country with help from Lyons and return to his native Germany in January 1996.

· Dennis Mahon, the Oklahoma leader of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, embarks in September on a nine-day tour of reunified Germany. The trip peaks with a Klan-style cross burning, organized by the neo-Nazi Nationalist Front (Nationalistische Front) and led by Mahon in a German forest near Berlin. Clad in a silk gown and hood, Mahon calls on a small crowd of neo-Nazi supporters from Germany and the Netherlands to use all means possible to save their race.

· Veteran American white supremacists John and Tom Metzger, principals of the White Aryan Resistance, are deported from Canada after addressing a June 28 rally including members of Canada's Heritage Front, the neo-Nazi Church of the Creator and other groups.

Canadian officials say the pair lied on entering the country, claiming they were visiting Canada on a shopping trip.

· About 200 people attend an October conference of the Institute for Historical Review, the California-based Holocaust denial organization.

Although an array of anti-Semites from abroad join their American counterparts, the star of the show — Wolfgang Hess, son of Nazi war criminal Rudolph Hess — is barred from entering the United States and sends a videotape instead.

· Briton Mark Cotterill, the leader of the Patriotic Forum (an English support group for radical Protestants in Northern Ireland), speaks at a New Jersey Populist Party meeting hosted by Don Wassall, head of the antigovernment American Nationalist Union. Cotterrill also visits neo-Nazi William Pierce at the National Alliance leader's compound in Hillsboro, W.V., to discuss the globalization of the far right and fundraising strategies.

· In late April, California-based White Aryan Resistance leader Tom Metzger cancels a planned nationwide British speaking tour after authorities ban him from the country. In Britain, Metzger was expected to lead an anti-Irish Republican Army march organized by the neofascist British National Party.

· The America First Party, a group formed by several white supremacists, holds a meeting in Atlanta where Michelle Faci and Guillaume Fabien, two members of the Euro-Nationalist Party based in Paris, speak on immigration and the protection of civil rights for whites.

· White supremacist attorney Kirk Lyons and Holocaust denier Fred Leuchter, both Americans, visit Germany on a 10-city tour to raise funds for Leuchter's defense. Leuchter, a self-avowed execution "expert," is facing Massachusetts misdemeanor charges of practicing engineering without a license because of his unauthorized testing of materials from inside German gas chambers. The pair's trip is organized by Bela Ewald Althans, a Holocaust denier who met Lyons at a 1992 California conference of the Holocaust-denying Institute for Historical Review.

· British Holocaust denier David Irving, accompanied by local attorney Sam Dickson, speaks to about 60 people in Decatur, Ga., Dickson's home town.

· Far-right activist Mark Cotterill moves to the Washington, D.C., area from southwest England after reportedly suffering a beating at the hands of anti-racists there.

Cotterill was formerly a regional organizer for the immigrant-bashing National Front, a distributor for the paramilitary Ulster Defense Association and, briefly, an activist in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party.

· Vladimir Bondarenko, editor of Zavtra (Tomorrow), an ultranationalist and anti-Semitic Russian newspaper, speaks at an America First Party meeting in Atlanta.

· On Sept. 3-5, an international group of Holocaust deniers — including David Irving of Britain; Ernst Zündel and John Ball of Canada; Robert Faurisson of France; Friedrich Berg of Germany; Carlo Mattogno of Italy; and Jürgen Graf and Arthur Vogt of Switzerland — attend an Irvine, Calif., conference sponsored by the Institute for Historical Review, a group of U.S. deniers.

Irving offers up a "fuller and more rounded portrait" of Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels.

· Resistance Records, the leading U.S. distributor of racist music, hosts a September musical festival in Racine, Wis., to honor seminal British white power musician Ian Stuart Donaldson, who died in a 1993 car accident. Among those playing are an English and a Canadian band.

· Hard-line Georgia white supremacist Ed Fields visits in London with Eric Bass, the last living member of the Imperial Fascist League, established in England in 1928 by Arnold Leese, one of the most extreme anti-Semites of his time.

Fields also is guest speaker at an annual dinner hosted by The Friends of Mosley in London. Sir Oswald Mosley was the head of the pre-World War II British Union of Fascists and National Socialists.

During the same trip, Fields stops in Belfast and Liverpool and spends a day with John Tyndall, head of the neofascist British National Party, in Brighton.

· In Denmark, American neo-Nazi Gary Lauck is arrested in March on international warrants for disseminating illegal propaganda in Germany. Lauck is staying at the time with Jonni Hansen, chairman of the neo-Nazi Danish National Socialist Movement (Danmarks Nationalsocialistike Bevægelse).

A few days later, German police will raid the homes of 80 Lauck followers, many of them teenagers, and seize weapons, ammunition and illegal literature. On Sept. 5, Denmark will extradite Lauck to Germany to face trial for inciting racial hatred.

· Former Klansman Don Black, who learned his computer skills in a federal prison, puts up the first major American hate site on the Internet. Its appearance marks the beginning of an era in which racist propaganda is easily available almost anywhere in the world, regardless of local laws.

Soon, some American activists will be tailoring sites to non-English speaking audiences. (U.S. neo-Nazi William Pierce, for instance, will post versions of his racist fantasy novel, The Turner Diaries, in several foreign languages.)

Others will help foreign extremists house their own foreign-language sites (aimed at their compatriots) on U.S. servers, in order to help them avoid hate speech laws in their own countries.

· Hans Schmidt, head of the Florida-based German American Nationalist PAC, travels to Germany on Aug. 9 to visit his mother and is arrested by the German secret police. According to Searchlight, a British antifascist magazine, Schmidt is picked up for, among other things, calling the German government "Jew- and Freemason-infested."

· In November, National Alliance leader William Pierce addresses an annual British National Party gathering in a London pub, discussing the differences between the U.S. and British neo-Nazi movements. Pierce's visit comes during a BNP recruiting slump, with the party competing against two other neofascist British groups.

The meeting, Searchlight reports, is marred by a domestic dispute between a BNP couple, the drunkenness of several BNP supporters and the unceremonious vomiting of one of them during Pierce's speech.

· American black separatist and Holocaust denier Robert Brock attends the conference of the neo-Nazi German Folk Union (Deutsche Volksunion) held in Passau, Germany.

According to the antifascist magazine Searchlight, Brock tells his listeners "the biggest problem facing Germany is that their national and international policy is dictated by persons who hate the national state of Germany" — he was referring to the Jews.

Brock reportedly ends his speech with the singing of "Deutschland Über Alles" ("Germany Over All").

· On Memorial Day weekend, 165 people from the United States, Canada and Europe gather in Louisville, Ky., for the biannual American Renaissance Conference hosted by Jared Taylor. (Taylor's high-toned American Renaissance magazine specializes in "proving" racial differences and the "science" of eugenics.)

Canadian J. Phillippe Rushton, professor at the University of Western Ontario and author of the highly controversial Race, Evolution, and Behavior, is a guest speaker. His topic is "The American Dilemma in World Perspective."

· U.S. Christian Identity ideologue Dan Gayman visits Australia and New Zealand.

· In August, a German court sentences American neo-Nazi Gary Lauck to a maximum four years in prison for inciting racial hatred with his German-language propaganda. He will be released and return to his home in Lincoln, Neb., in March 1999.

· William Pierce, head of the neo-Nazi National Alliance, travels to England to address an official meeting of the neofascist British National Party. After his visit, Pierce is banned from the United Kingdom.

· National Alliance leader William Pierce attends a rally of the neofascist National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlandes, or NPD) in Passau, Germany, on Feb. 7, themed the NPD's "Day of National Resistance." Pierce planned to speak at the rally, but he is banned from doing so by the German authorities.

Pierce will later claim that 6,600 people were present at what he describes as the biggest meeting of the NPD since 1970 and the largest nationalist gathering of any kind in Germany in a decade.

· Alexander von Webenau, NPD's head of student recruitment, addresses a National Alliance "leadership conference" in Hillsboro, W.V. According to The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds, a book about Pierce, von Webenau says the NPD wants to get the "big noses" out of Germany.

He will stay at Pierce's compound for a week "in order to establish a closer relationship between the NPD and the National Alliance."

· Michael Walker, the British editor of the Germany-based nationalist magazine The Scorpion, attends the American Renaissance Conference held in Herndon, Va., Aug. 28-30. Walker speaks on nationalist movements in Europe and lauds the leader of the far-right National Front in France, Jean-Marie Le Pen. J. Phillippe Rushton of Canada speaks on "Ethnic Nationalism and Genetic Similarity," saying that races differ not only in intelligence, but also in physiology, behavior and personality.

· An American delegation from the white supremacist Council of Conservative Citizens, including top leaders Gordon Lee Baum and Tom Dover, makes a trip to a National Front festival in France in August. Accompanying the group is Jared Taylor, editor of the race-obsessed American Renaissance magazine.

· William Pierce travels to Thessalonica, Greece, in October to meet secretly with some 150 right-wing extremist delegates from all over Europe. The antifascist Searchlight magazine reports that Pierce lays out "a vision of a far-right fraternity dominated by his theories of race war."

Pierce later writes about meeting Leon Strydom, the "foreign secretary" of the South African white nationalist Herstigte National Party, and discussing the "suicidal foolishness" of allowing black rule.

· British revisionist David Irving, a Nazi apologist who describes himself as a "historian," completes a 5,000-mile speaking tour in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. The tour included stops in California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia and Washington.

· Michigan-based Skinhead band Max Resist plays a concert near Stockholm, Sweden, organized by Nordland, a leading Swedish distributor of white power music. Authorities arrest 314 people for rioting.

Among them are five Americans, including Max Resist's lead singer Shawn Suggs and Eric Owens, who will later join the Holocaust-denying Institute for Historical Review (IHR) as an editor of IHR's Journal of Historical Review.