John William King Quotes Francis Parker Yockey in Statement About Hate Crime
By Martin A. Lee
Whatever strange game Yockey was playing came to an abrupt halt a few months later when the FBI arrested him in Oakland, California, on charges of passport fraud. "This is not a small fish. This is a man that we are very, very interested in," a U.S. government source told the San Francisco Examiner.
On June 17, 1960, after 11 days in prison, Yockey took his own life by swallowing a cyanide capsule.
Yockey's story might have ended there, if Willis Carto, the founder and godfather of the anti-Semitic Liberty Lobby, had not appeared on the scene. Carto was the last person to visit Yockey in jail before he committed suicide.
In his monthly newsletter Right, Carto eulogized Yockey, describing him as "a great creative genius" and "a martyr" who had been "hounded and persecuted like a wild beast."
More than anyone else, Carto was instrumental in promoting Yockey's writings and his posthumous reputation among fascists as a so-called American visionary. Carto's Noontide Press published a paperback version of Imperium.
"Now, for the first time, those soldiers who enlist in the service of the West have a profound theory to inspire and guide them," Carto stated in a lengthy introduction to the Noontide Press edition, which has sold more than 20,000 copies. Alluding to the Third Reich, Carto predicted that Yockey's tome would "live a thousand years."
Samples of Yockey's inflammatory prose — including an essay addressed to America's youth — were later featured in The Spotlight, the weekly tabloid of the Liberty Lobby.
And the Institute for Historical Review, yet another tentacle of the Carto complex, was founded to elaborate upon Yockey's claim that the Nazi Holocaust never happened.
After supporting Alabama Gov. George Wallace's third-party presidential bid in 1968, Carto took control of Youth for Wallace and renamed it the National Youth Alliance. The ousted directors of the Wallace youth group grew concerned when they discovered that the movers and shakers behind Carto's political apparatus were part of a subterranean neo-Nazi cult known as the Francis Parker Yockey Society.
"They belong to secret cells," columnist Drew Pearson reported in 1969, "where they are known only by code names. ... They sing the old Nazi songs, hoard Nazi war relics and display the swastika at their meetings. ... They seek the overthrow of democracy in the United States."
Imperium was introduced as the founding theoretical text of the short-lived National Youth Alliance, which disbanded amidst internecine strife. (It would be reconstituted as the National Alliance by William Pierce, a former Rockwell ally and today a key neo-Nazi figure.) For several years, one-time Klansman David Duke sold Imperium through his mail-order book catalog.
In 1981, Liberty Bell Publications, run by George Dietz in Reedy, W. Va., brought out another book by Yockey called The Enemy of Europe. This obscure tract was dedicated to "the founder of the Francis Parker Yockey Society, Louis T. Byers, an Aryan of Aryans... ." Excerpts of The Enemy of Europe had previously appeared in TRUD! From the White Underground ("Trud" is Russian for "truth"), a small-circulation journal edited by American rightist Douglas Kaye, who also published a collection of Yockey's essays.
Yockey and the Modern Right
Yockey's books and articles continue to be distributed by neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups in the U.S. and abroad. German and Spanish translations of Imperium are now available in European bookstores.
In addition, Yockey is admired by leading British neo-Nazis, including former British National Party chief John Tyndall, who described Imperium as a work "of outstanding philosophical importance." And a group of French Yockey fans were involved in launching a new European Liberation Front, which has close ties to "red-brown" extremists in post-Soviet Russia.
Yockey's influence also persists today among the growing number of practitioners of Odinism — in particular, the Ásatrú Alliance, headquartered in Arizona — who seek to revive the pagan rituals of pre-Christian Nordic culture.
These circles intersect with the occult underground, the Church of Satan, and racist elements of the "black metal" music scene. For several years, Kerry Bolton, a New Zealand-based publisher of Yockey's writings, has been advocating a bizarre fusion of occultism and fascist politics.
Kevin Coogan, author of a recently published authoritiative biography of Yockey (Dreamer of the Day, Autonomedia, 1999), notes that elements of what he calls "the current Yockey revival" also can be seen reflected in personalities like Michael Moynihan, a musician and writer who inhabits the netherworld of black metal/occult/fascism and is a leading member of the Ásatrú Alliance.
Moynihan's Portland, Ore.-based Storm Records even sells a CD which includes a song that, according to Coogan, is "directly inspired" by Yockey. Coogan also points out the interest in Yockey within the Abraxas Foundation, "a Church of Satan-influenced group."
While Yockey remains a cult hero only among right-wing extremists, his story has broader significance. It underscores the fact that resurgent fascist movements can assume widely diverging forms, some of which may be difficult to recognize.
This is important to remember at a time when progressive and far-right critiques of economic globalization and the World Trade Organization appear, at least on the surface, to overlap in certain respects. If fascism should return as a serious political force, it is much more likely to appear in an unexpected guise than in a hooded sheet or a brown shirt with a swastika.
Martin A. Lee is the author of The Beast Reawakens (Routledge, 1999), a book about resurgent fascism and right-wing extremism in the U.S. and Europe.