A timeline documents how the web of associations between European and American right-wing extremists has thickened from World War II to the present.
Despite the ocean that separates Europe and America, the ties that connect people on both continents remain powerful to this day. And that is as true of extremists on the radical right as it is of other sectors of society.
Since the end of World War II, in fact, there has been a thickening web of connections between individuals and groups on the extreme right in the United States and their compatriots in Europe. Although these links were at first tenuous, involving a handful of German ex-Nazis and their fascist American admirers, they have multiplied over the years, particularly in the last decade or so.
This is partly because of the rise of "pan-Aryanism," a white supremacist philosophy that emphasizes the idea that white revolutionaries must adopt a global strategy to succeed. In the words of American neo-Nazi William Pierce, leader of the National Alliance, "We must understand that we are in a planet-wide race war, and survival of our race depends on our winning this war."
A number of other factors also have contributed to the growing internationalism of the extreme right. Denial of the Holocaust has become an increasingly international enterprise (see Lying About the Holocaust), with a whole network of deniers spread around the globe.
Modern communications — the Internet and powerful shortwave radio broadcasts that mostly emanate from stations in the United States (see From America, With Hate) — have transformed the way extremists in different nations interact with one another.
White power music, which began in Britain but soon spread to the rest of Europe and then America, also has acted as a unifying element, particularly among racist Skinheads (see White Pride Worldwide). And extremists like Pierce and British neofascist Mark Cotterill (see Hands Across the Water) have found leading roles on both sides of the Atlantic.
In the following pages, the Intelligence Report presents a timeline, running from the end of World War II to the present, that fleshes out this growing internationalization of the radical right.
· American fascist Francis Parker Yockey, author of the influential far-right book Imperium, forms the European Liberation Front (ELF) in London along with a small group of British fascists. The ELF cultivates ties with old German Nazis and other European fascists.
During the early 1950s, Yockey will travel back and forth between North America and Europe, where he promotes the idea that American capitalism poses a greater danger to Europe than Soviet militarism — a highly unusual assertion for the radical right of the time, but one which will become far more pronounced among American and European extremists 50 years later.
· New York-based businessman H. Keith Thompson registers with the Justice Department as the U.S representative of West Germany's neo-Nazi Socialist Reich Party (SRP), led by Major General Otto Ernst Remer, Hitler's former bodyguard. Thompson will serve the SRP until it is banned by the West German government in October 1952. During this period, Thompson is also affiliated with New York's National Renaissance Party, which maintains contacts with right-wing extremist groups in Europe, South America, the Middle East and South Africa.
· American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell secretly travels to England to attend a meeting of neo-Nazi leaders from Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Ireland and West Germany.
At a clandestine location in the Cotswold hills, the World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) that Rockwell has planned for three years is formed with Rockwell and British neo-Nazi Colin Jordan as co-leaders.
WUNS describes itself as a "combat efficient, international political apparatus" that will provide, among other things, the "final settlement of the Jewish problem." Within months, Rockwell will become the sole WUNS leader.
· On Aug. 25, George Lincoln Rockwell is assassinated by a former follower, stunning the World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) which Rockwell has built up to 19 national chapters. Rockwell's WUNS had "kept the flickering flame of Hitler's dream alive" for many old Nazis in Germany, according to biographer Frederick Simonelli.
But after Rockwell's death, WUNS will remain effective only as a communications network before finally expiring in the mid-1990s.
· Harold Covington, who joined a neo-Nazi group while in the U.S. Army in 1972, moves to South Africa, later joining the white-led Rhodesian Army for 18 months. Covington will later claim that he was a founding member of the Rhodesian White People's Party.
He will be deported from Rhodesia (later renamed Zimbabwe) in 1976, after sending threatening letters to a Jewish congregation there.
· Gary "Gerhard" Lauck, an American with a put-on German accent and Hitlerite moustache, founds the NSDAP/AO (the German language acronym for National Socialist German Workers Party/Overseas Organization) after being expelled from Germany for giving a pro-Hitler speech.
For two decades, Lauck's tiny Lincoln, Neb.-based group will print up to 8 million pieces of German-language neo-Nazi propaganda a year for smuggling into Germany. A key German neo-Nazi leader will later characterize Lauck as "the center of a world-wide umbrella organization with which practically every neo-Nazi had contact."
· Gary Lauck is again arrested in West Germany carrying 20,000 Nazi posters, according to the Anti-Defamation League. After serving a four-month term, he is deported and banned from Germany for life.
· David Duke, head of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, travels to England, supposedly at the request of British supporters concerned about Third World immigration. (In his biography, My Awakening, Duke says he earlier hosted British visitors at his Louisiana headquarters who went through Klan rituals and then returned home to set up Klan branches in England and Scotland.) While in England, Duke speaks at Oxford University.
· Dan Gayman, pastor of the Schell City, Mo.-based Church of Israel and a leading ideologue of the racist and anti-Semitic Christian Identity theology, visits England and other parts of Europe.
· Willis Carto founds what will become America's premier Holocaust denial organization, the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), with David McCalden of Northern Ireland as its first executive director.
IHR holds its first conference with attendees from around the world, attracting the attention of Knights of the Ku Klux Klan boss David Duke, who is so taken that he will publish in 1980 a "Special Holocaust Edition" of his Klan newspaper, The Crusader.
· Dan Gayman of the anti-Semitic Church of Israel travels to England and Europe. While in England, he visits various official Churches of England, later styling himself as an Anglican bishop and even adopting the collar for a time.
· Three years after his involvement in a North Carolina shootout that left five Klan opponents dead, neo-Nazi Harold Covington moves abroad, spending the next five years in South Africa, Great Britain and Ireland, according to the Anti-Defamation League.
A year after his return to the United States, he will write that his purpose was to build up "the worldwide, White Aryan resistance movement."
· Tom Metzger, neo-Nazi founder of California-based White Aryan Resistance, runs display ads touting Ian Stuart Donaldson and his group Skrewdriver, the seminal British white power band that was behind a series of extreme right-wing "Rock Against Communism" concerts.
The ads reflect Metzger's early interest in racist Skinheads, who are just beginning to appear in the United States, as the potential "shock troops" of the revolution. A Metzger aide describes the Skinheads as "a present given to us" by the far-right National Front in Britain.
· The United Kingdom bans racist Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan from entering the country, citing concerns for racial harmony. The ban will be extended several times, including a 1998 extension that follows Nation members' disruption of a high-profile inquiry into the racially motivated murder of a black teenager in London.
Although the ban is extended indefinitely in 2000, Nation officials will appeal to a British court in July 2001 on the grounds of free speech.
· The California-based Institute for Historical Review, the leading U.S. Holocaust denial organization, holds its eighth annual International Revisionist Conference in Irvine, Calif., after advertising a "special mystery guest." The guest turns out to be Major General Otto Ernst Remer, the unrepentant Nazi who helped crush the July 20, 1944, plot against Hitler.
Remer, recently sentenced to six months in a German jail for making anti-Semitic remarks, has no trouble entering the United States.
· White Aryan Resistance founder Tom Metzger recruits white power Skinhead bands for an "international punk white power record album," according to the Chicago-based Center for New Community. The album, later released on London-based White Noise Records, will be entitled "The Spirit of Oi."
· German national Andreas "Andi" Strassmeir, who will become close to a number of American extremists, makes his first visit to the United States, supposedly because of his interest in the American Civil War.
He reportedly lives in Virginia with Vincent Petruskie, a retired Air Force colonel and friend of Andreas' father Günter Strassmeir, a high-ranking official of the German Christian Democratic Party. After this visit, Strassmeir will travel abroad before returning in 1991.
· James Farrands, imperial wizard of the Invisible Empire Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, travels to Britain to meet with and "naturalize" — that is, swear in — new recruits. Among them are Ian Stuart Donaldson, leader of the neo-Nazi band Skrewdriver and creator of the Blood & Honour music operation, and Keith Thompson of the neofascist League of St. George.
Farrands also travels to Wales, where he meets with backers from England, Scotland, Wales and West Germany.
· John Tyndall, long-time head of the neofascist British National Party (BNP) and a friend of American neo-Nazi William Pierce, travels to the United States to speak. Tyndall's tour, sponsored by chapters of the Populist Party, Georgia-based white supremacist veteran Ed Fields and others, includes stops in Atlanta, California, Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey and North Carolina.
· Far-right U.S. talk show host Tom Valentine begins transmitting an hour-long shortwave program on Nashville-based WWCR that is heard around the world. The program, which effectively makes Valentine the father of far-right shortwave radio in America, is officially sponsored by The Spotlight, the conspiracy-minded newspaper of the anti-Semitic Liberty Lobby. By 2001, there will be more than 1,100 hours a month of extremist programming on U.S.-based shortwave.
· North Carolinian Harold Covington, a veteran of the international neo-Nazi scene, moves to Britain for several months. According to Searchlight, a British antifascist magazine, he helps the founders of Combat 18 (C-18), a British neofascist group, devise a "militant and aggressive" program.
Later, Searchlight reports, Covington will provide a U.S. post office box for C-18's illegal propaganda operations. In a letter, Covington says he is in Europe to promote "a worldwide racial resistance."
· Andreas Strassmeir returns to the United States and, through arrangements made by white supremacist U.S. attorney Kirk Lyons, ends up at Elohim City, a Christian Identity enclave in Oklahoma.
In September 1995, Strassmeir will leave Elohim City amid questions about why Timothy McVeigh tried to contact him there a couple of weeks before the Oklahoma City bombing. Saying he had merely met McVeigh briefly at a 1993 gun show, Strassmeir will be spirited out of the country with help from Lyons and return to his native Germany in January 1996.
· Dennis Mahon, the Oklahoma leader of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, embarks in September on a nine-day tour of reunified Germany. The trip peaks with a Klan-style cross burning, organized by the neo-Nazi Nationalist Front (Nationalistische Front) and led by Mahon in a German forest near Berlin. Clad in a silk gown and hood, Mahon calls on a small crowd of neo-Nazi supporters from Germany and the Netherlands to use all means possible to save their race.
· Veteran American white supremacists John and Tom Metzger, principals of the White Aryan Resistance, are deported from Canada after addressing a June 28 rally including members of Canada's Heritage Front, the neo-Nazi Church of the Creator and other groups.
Canadian officials say the pair lied on entering the country, claiming they were visiting Canada on a shopping trip.
· About 200 people attend an October conference of the Institute for Historical Review, the California-based Holocaust denial organization.
Although an array of anti-Semites from abroad join their American counterparts, the star of the show — Wolfgang Hess, son of Nazi war criminal Rudolph Hess — is barred from entering the United States and sends a videotape instead.
· Briton Mark Cotterill, the leader of the Patriotic Forum (an English support group for radical Protestants in Northern Ireland), speaks at a New Jersey Populist Party meeting hosted by Don Wassall, head of the antigovernment American Nationalist Union. Cotterrill also visits neo-Nazi William Pierce at the National Alliance leader's compound in Hillsboro, W.V., to discuss the globalization of the far right and fundraising strategies.
· In late April, California-based White Aryan Resistance leader Tom Metzger cancels a planned nationwide British speaking tour after authorities ban him from the country. In Britain, Metzger was expected to lead an anti-Irish Republican Army march organized by the neofascist British National Party.
· The America First Party, a group formed by several white supremacists, holds a meeting in Atlanta where Michelle Faci and Guillaume Fabien, two members of the Euro-Nationalist Party based in Paris, speak on immigration and the protection of civil rights for whites.
· White supremacist attorney Kirk Lyons and Holocaust denier Fred Leuchter, both Americans, visit Germany on a 10-city tour to raise funds for Leuchter's defense. Leuchter, a self-avowed execution "expert," is facing Massachusetts misdemeanor charges of practicing engineering without a license because of his unauthorized testing of materials from inside German gas chambers. The pair's trip is organized by Bela Ewald Althans, a Holocaust denier who met Lyons at a 1992 California conference of the Holocaust-denying Institute for Historical Review.
· British Holocaust denier David Irving, accompanied by local attorney Sam Dickson, speaks to about 60 people in Decatur, Ga., Dickson's home town.
· Far-right activist Mark Cotterill moves to the Washington, D.C., area from southwest England after reportedly suffering a beating at the hands of anti-racists there.
Cotterill was formerly a regional organizer for the immigrant-bashing National Front, a distributor for the paramilitary Ulster Defense Association and, briefly, an activist in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party.
· Vladimir Bondarenko, editor of Zavtra (Tomorrow), an ultranationalist and anti-Semitic Russian newspaper, speaks at an America First Party meeting in Atlanta.
· On Sept. 3-5, an international group of Holocaust deniers — including David Irving of Britain; Ernst Zündel and John Ball of Canada; Robert Faurisson of France; Friedrich Berg of Germany; Carlo Mattogno of Italy; and Jürgen Graf and Arthur Vogt of Switzerland — attend an Irvine, Calif., conference sponsored by the Institute for Historical Review, a group of U.S. deniers.
Irving offers up a "fuller and more rounded portrait" of Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels.
· Resistance Records, the leading U.S. distributor of racist music, hosts a September musical festival in Racine, Wis., to honor seminal British white power musician Ian Stuart Donaldson, who died in a 1993 car accident. Among those playing are an English and a Canadian band.
· Hard-line Georgia white supremacist Ed Fields visits in London with Eric Bass, the last living member of the Imperial Fascist League, established in England in 1928 by Arnold Leese, one of the most extreme anti-Semites of his time.
Fields also is guest speaker at an annual dinner hosted by The Friends of Mosley in London. Sir Oswald Mosley was the head of the pre-World War II British Union of Fascists and National Socialists.
During the same trip, Fields stops in Belfast and Liverpool and spends a day with John Tyndall, head of the neofascist British National Party, in Brighton.
· In Denmark, American neo-Nazi Gary Lauck is arrested in March on international warrants for disseminating illegal propaganda in Germany. Lauck is staying at the time with Jonni Hansen, chairman of the neo-Nazi Danish National Socialist Movement (Danmarks Nationalsocialistike Bevægelse).
A few days later, German police will raid the homes of 80 Lauck followers, many of them teenagers, and seize weapons, ammunition and illegal literature. On Sept. 5, Denmark will extradite Lauck to Germany to face trial for inciting racial hatred.
· Former Klansman Don Black, who learned his computer skills in a federal prison, puts up the first major American hate site on the Internet. Its appearance marks the beginning of an era in which racist propaganda is easily available almost anywhere in the world, regardless of local laws.
Soon, some American activists will be tailoring sites to non-English speaking audiences. (U.S. neo-Nazi William Pierce, for instance, will post versions of his racist fantasy novel, The Turner Diaries, in several foreign languages.)
Others will help foreign extremists house their own foreign-language sites (aimed at their compatriots) on U.S. servers, in order to help them avoid hate speech laws in their own countries.
· Hans Schmidt, head of the Florida-based German American Nationalist PAC, travels to Germany on Aug. 9 to visit his mother and is arrested by the German secret police. According to Searchlight, a British antifascist magazine, Schmidt is picked up for, among other things, calling the German government "Jew- and Freemason-infested."
· In November, National Alliance leader William Pierce addresses an annual British National Party gathering in a London pub, discussing the differences between the U.S. and British neo-Nazi movements. Pierce's visit comes during a BNP recruiting slump, with the party competing against two other neofascist British groups.
The meeting, Searchlight reports, is marred by a domestic dispute between a BNP couple, the drunkenness of several BNP supporters and the unceremonious vomiting of one of them during Pierce's speech.
· American black separatist and Holocaust denier Robert Brock attends the conference of the neo-Nazi German Folk Union (Deutsche Volksunion) held in Passau, Germany.
According to the antifascist magazine Searchlight, Brock tells his listeners "the biggest problem facing Germany is that their national and international policy is dictated by persons who hate the national state of Germany" — he was referring to the Jews.
Brock reportedly ends his speech with the singing of "Deutschland Über Alles" ("Germany Over All").
· On Memorial Day weekend, 165 people from the United States, Canada and Europe gather in Louisville, Ky., for the biannual American Renaissance Conference hosted by Jared Taylor. (Taylor's high-toned American Renaissance magazine specializes in "proving" racial differences and the "science" of eugenics.)
Canadian J. Phillippe Rushton, professor at the University of Western Ontario and author of the highly controversial Race, Evolution, and Behavior, is a guest speaker. His topic is "The American Dilemma in World Perspective."
· U.S. Christian Identity ideologue Dan Gayman visits Australia and New Zealand.
· In August, a German court sentences American neo-Nazi Gary Lauck to a maximum four years in prison for inciting racial hatred with his German-language propaganda. He will be released and return to his home in Lincoln, Neb., in March 1999.
· William Pierce, head of the neo-Nazi National Alliance, travels to England to address an official meeting of the neofascist British National Party. After his visit, Pierce is banned from the United Kingdom.
· National Alliance leader William Pierce attends a rally of the neofascist National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlandes, or NPD) in Passau, Germany, on Feb. 7, themed the NPD's "Day of National Resistance." Pierce planned to speak at the rally, but he is banned from doing so by the German authorities.
Pierce will later claim that 6,600 people were present at what he describes as the biggest meeting of the NPD since 1970 and the largest nationalist gathering of any kind in Germany in a decade.
· Alexander von Webenau, NPD's head of student recruitment, addresses a National Alliance "leadership conference" in Hillsboro, W.V. According to The Fame of a Dead Man's Deeds, a book about Pierce, von Webenau says the NPD wants to get the "big noses" out of Germany.
He will stay at Pierce's compound for a week "in order to establish a closer relationship between the NPD and the National Alliance."
· Michael Walker, the British editor of the Germany-based nationalist magazine The Scorpion, attends the American Renaissance Conference held in Herndon, Va., Aug. 28-30. Walker speaks on nationalist movements in Europe and lauds the leader of the far-right National Front in France, Jean-Marie Le Pen. J. Phillippe Rushton of Canada speaks on "Ethnic Nationalism and Genetic Similarity," saying that races differ not only in intelligence, but also in physiology, behavior and personality.
· An American delegation from the white supremacist Council of Conservative Citizens, including top leaders Gordon Lee Baum and Tom Dover, makes a trip to a National Front festival in France in August. Accompanying the group is Jared Taylor, editor of the race-obsessed American Renaissance magazine.
· William Pierce travels to Thessalonica, Greece, in October to meet secretly with some 150 right-wing extremist delegates from all over Europe. The antifascist Searchlight magazine reports that Pierce lays out "a vision of a far-right fraternity dominated by his theories of race war."
Pierce later writes about meeting Leon Strydom, the "foreign secretary" of the South African white nationalist Herstigte National Party, and discussing the "suicidal foolishness" of allowing black rule.
· British revisionist David Irving, a Nazi apologist who describes himself as a "historian," completes a 5,000-mile speaking tour in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. The tour included stops in California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Virginia and Washington.
· Michigan-based Skinhead band Max Resist plays a concert near Stockholm, Sweden, organized by Nordland, a leading Swedish distributor of white power music. Authorities arrest 314 people for rioting.
Among them are five Americans, including Max Resist's lead singer Shawn Suggs and Eric Owens, who will later join the Holocaust-denying Institute for Historical Review (IHR) as an editor of IHR's Journal of Historical Review.
· After discussions in England, the American Friends of the British National Party (AFBNP) is formed in January with expatriate Briton Mark Cotterill, who is based in Falls Church, Va., as its head.
The group appears primarily concerned with raising funds for the neofascist British National Party (BNP), although it will come to act as a nexus for a variety of American extreme-right groups.
· Later in January, Stan Hess, a long-time anti-immigration activist and founding member of the AFBNP, goes to England to meet with Nick Griffin and Richard Edmonds of the BNP. The men discuss how to improve AFBNP fundraising.
· Stephen Cartwright of the Scottish branch of the BNP travels in March to the Washington, D.C., area to speak at an AFBNP meeting in Arlington, Va. After a brief overview of the BNP, Cartwright asks for money to help the party run in upcoming European parliamentary elections.
In ensuing days, he will appear in Richmond, Va., and in Baltimore, where he speaks to members of the neo-Nazi National Alliance. During his visit, Cartwright meets with former Klansman David Duke and stays with AFBNP boss Mark Cotterill.
· American Renaissance Editor Jared Taylor travels to London in June to address a meeting of supporters of Right Now!, an English pseudo-academic, "racialist" publication similar to his own. Taylor, the British antifascist magazine Searchlight will report, describes multiculturalism as "a conspiracy to destroy white society."
· Simon Darby, the BNP's webmaster, speaks in July to three private meetings of AFBNP supporters in Virginia and Florida. Darby tells an audience in Fairfax County, Va., that although the party polled only 100,000 votes in recent European parliamentary elections, the campaign "also resulted in large numbers of people joining the Party and many new chapters being set up."
· Starting in late October, William Pierce spends six days at the neofascist NPD's Youth Congress in the Bavarian village of Falkenberg, Germany. Five hundred youths, a third of them Skinheads, hear speakers from Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Lithuania, Romania and Sweden.
Pierce, the only speaker from the United States, advocates increased collaboration by white nationalists around the world, saying "our destinies are linked."
While in Falkenberg, Pierce finishes taking control of the Swedish white power music label Nordland's stock and U.S. band contracts. According to Searchlight, the acquisition costs Pierce $50,000.
· In December, National Socialist Black Metal musician and convicted murderer Hendrik Möbus flees parole violation charges in his native Germany and flies to Seattle, Wash., to visit with white supremacist Nathan Pett. In June 2000, after an allegedly violent dispute with Pett, Möbus will find refuge at William Pierce's National Alliance compound in West Virginia.
Meanwhile, German officials issue international warrants for Möbus, who is accused of violating parole by mocking the memory of his 14-year-old murder victim and by giving a "Sieg Heil" salute.
· In late January, Stephen Brady (traveling under the pseudonym of Stephen King) of the neofascist British National Party (BNP) comes to the United States, addressing meetings of the American Friends of the British National Party (AFBNP) in Arlington, Va., and Palm Beach, Fla.
At both, Brady discusses the recent electoral advances of Austrian ultranationalist Jörg Haider's Freedom Party, ending the Virginia gathering with a stiff-armed salute to Haider.
· An international cast of right-wing ideologues attends the Reston, Va., American Renaissance Conference hosted by academic racist Jared Taylor in March.
Among them are:
- Bruno Gollnisch of the French National Front;
- J. Phillippe Rushton of Canada;
- Frank Ellis of England; and
- Richard Lynn of Northern Ireland.
Lynn says that through immigration, "we are building our own funeral pyre." Rushton recounts the "devastatingly low" IQ scores he claims he found when testing South African university-educated blacks. Ellis, who is attending despite warnings not to from his employer, Leeds University, complains of political correctness.
· Nick Griffin, who took over the BNP in late 1999 from long-time leader John Tyndall, speaks at an April 22 AFBNP meeting in Arlington, Va., along with U.S. white supremacists David Duke and Kirk Lyons, to ask for financial aid.
Visiting from Germany as a reported emissary of the neofascist NPD party, U.S.-born Roy Arthur Armstrong (who in Germany has used the last name of his German wife, Gödenau), complains of "socialist" Germany and claims that a "more united and younger nationalist movement" has arisen in Germany and electoral success is near. A former American serviceman in Germany who had cultivated other extremists over at least a decade, Armstrong will later become a key Duke aide.
· The Institute for Historical Review, America's leading Holocaust denial outfit, hosts a May 28 conference in Irvine, Calif., attended by half a dozen key historical revisionists from abroad:
- John Bennett of Australia;
- Robert Faurisson of France;
- Jürgen Graf of Switzerland;
- David Irving of Britain;
- Germar Rudolf of Germany; and
- Ernst Zündel of Canada.
Graf, a former schoolteacher, has lived in exile in Iran since he was sentenced to Swiss prison because of his Holocaust-denying book. Rudolf, a chemist and editor of a German revisionist journal, also reportedly is in exile since an illegal forensic examination of the Auschwitz gas chambers.
· During the summer, former Klansman David Duke makes his second trip to Russia, at the invitation of Alexander Prokhanov, editor of the ultranationalist newspaper Zavtra, and Konstantin Kasimovsky, head of an anti-Semitic outfit called Russian Action.
Duke promotes his latest book, The Ultimate Supremacism: My Awakening on the Jewish Question, which is openly offered in the lobby of the Russian Congress for $1.80 and which sells out a 5,000-copy printing in a few weeks. Boris Mironov, who was once press secretary to former president Boris Yeltsin, wrote the preface to Duke's book. In November, after a visit back to the States, Duke will return to Russia.
· In the United States, AFBNP boss Mark Cotterill meets in August with Povl Riis-Knudsen, a former member of Denmark's leading neo-Nazi organization, the Danish National Socialist Movement. In the late 1960s, Riis-Knudsen was general secretary of the World Union of National Socialists, the international neo-Nazi organization long led by American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell.
Riis-Knudsen also is a personal friend of Martin Kerr, the AFBNP member who chairs most of that group's meetings and who also is a former spokesman for the neo-Nazi New Order.
· On Aug. 26, German neo-Nazi musician Hendrik Möbus is taken into custody by federal agents near the National Alliance compound in West Virginia. Based on a German extradition request, deportation proceedings are initiated. As late as July 2001, having been denied political asylum by an immigration judge, Möbus will still be fighting deportation to his native Germany.
· BNP organizer Richard Brook travels to Arlington, Va., to speak at an August AFBNP meeting. Discussing the close links between the radical right in America and Britain, he points out that he has an American wife and asks for money.
· An international conference of "nationalists" planned by David Duke for October fails to come off, Searchlight reports. Duke reportedly had invited BNP boss Nick Griffin and various other extremists from France, Germany and Russia.
· Hundreds of neo-Nazi Skinheads and others from around Europe and the United States attend a Hammerskin "hatecore" concert in Bremen, Ga. The October concert is one of many held annually on both continents that bring together Skinhead bands and audiences from both sides of the Atlantic.
· Jens Puhse and Henrik and Jürgen Distler, officials of the neofascist German NPD party, join 43 U.S. members of the National Alliance in an April 2 protest outside the German embassy in Washington, D.C.
They march to protest the lack of free speech and the "persecution" of dissidents in Germany, including the charges brought against German neo-Nazi Hendrik Möbus, who is facing U.S. deportation to Germany.
Puhse oversees NPD book, video and CD sales, while Jürgen Distler edits the NPD's monthly Deutsche Stimme (German Voice). Both men are on the NPD governing board and had met Alliance boss William Pierce in Germany.
· British National Party (BNP) organizer Paul Thompson tells a February AFBNP meeting in Port St. Lucie, Fla., that officials of the European Union are wrecking Europe's nations so as to create one "super multiracial, multicultural Euro-state."
· BNP National Chairman Nick Griffin, hosted with his wife by AFBNP chieftain Mark Cotterill, addresses three meetings in a week-long visit in May.
In Richmond, Va., Griffin's speech, on the upcoming English elections and ongoing race riots in the English town of Oldham, is co-hosted by David Duke's National Organization for European American Rights. In Fort Lee, N.J., at a meeting co-sponsored by the racist Council of Conservative Citizens, Griffin discusses European nationalist movements.
In Arlington, Va., Griffin's speech is preceded by "a minute's silence" for Byron de la Beckwith, the murderer of civil rights leader Medgar Evers.