These are the names of 73 men and women who died between 1952 and 1968 under circumstances suggesting they were the victims of racially motivated violence. The information below was gathered by the Southern Poverty Law Center as it planned a timeline of killings and other civil rights era events for the Civil Rights Memorial.
The Memorial, dedicated in 1989, includes the names of 40 civil rights martyrs who were slain during that era. The names below were not inscribed on the Memorial because there was insufficient information about their deaths at the time the Memorial was created. They are, however, identified in a display at the Civil Rights Memorial Center as "The Forgotten."
Anderson, Andrew Lee - Marion, Ark., 1963
Anderson was slain by a group of whites and sheriff's deputies after a white woman said he had molested her 8-year-old daughter. A coroner's jury ruled justifiable homicide, and no arrests were made.
Andrews, Frank - Lisman, Ala., 1964
Andrews was shot in the back by a white sheriff's deputy. The county solicitor said the victim was attacking another deputy, and no arrests were made.
Banks, Isadore - Marion, Ark., 1954
Banks' charred corpse was found chained to a tree. Black press reports speculated he was killed by whites who wanted his land. His property was later rented by white farmers.
Bolden, Larry - Chattanooga, Tenn., 1958
Bolden, 15, was shot by a white policeman. No arrests were made.
Brazier, James - Dawson, Ga., 1958
Brazier was beaten to death in front of his wife and children by two police officers. County Sheriff Z.T. Matthews was later quoted in the Washington Post saying, "There's nothing like fear to keep n------ in line."
Brewer, Thomas - Columbus, Ga., 1956
Brewer was instrumental in forming a local chapter of the NAACP in 1937. He was shot seven times outside his office by white politician Lucio Flowers. A grand jury failed to indict.
Brooks, Hilliard - Montgomery, Ala., 1952
Brooks was shot by a police officer after initially refusing to get off a city bus when the driver claimed he had not paid his fare. A coroner said the murder was justified because Brooks resisted arrest.
Brown, Charles - Yazoo City, Miss., 1957
A white man shot Brown, who was visiting the white man's sister. The Justice Department handed the case over to the state.
Brown, Jessie - Winona, Miss., 1965
The 1965 NAACP annual report claimed white farmer R.M. Gibson killed Brown.
Brumfield, Carrie - Franklinton, La., 1967
Brumfield was found shot to death in his car on a rural road. He was shot once in the chest with a .22-caliber revolver.
Brumfield, Eli - McComb, Miss., 1961
Police officer B.F. Elmore alleged self-defense after shooting Brumfield. Police claimed Brumfield jumped from his car with a pocket knife after police pulled him over for speeding.
Caston, Silas (Ernest) - Jackson, Miss., 1964
Caston was shot by a local police officer. CORE and NAACP filed a civil suit against Deputy Sheriff Herbert Sullivan. The result of that suit is unknown.
Cloninger, Clarence - Gaston, N.C., 1960
Cloninger died while incarcerated. Authorities denied him medical attention after he suffered a heart attack.
Countryman, Willie - Dawson, Ga., 1958
Police officer W.B. Cherry was cleared of murder charges after police said he shot Countryman "in self defense in the line of duty."
Dahmon, Vincent - Natchez, Miss., 1966
Dahmon, 65, was shot in the head around the time of a march in support of James Meredith.
Daniels, Woodrow Wilson - Water Valley, Miss., 1958
Sheriff Buster Treloar, identified by four witnesses as the man who beat Daniels to death in a prison, was freed after 23 minutes of deliberation by an all-white jury. "By God," Treloar said after the trial. "Now I can get back to rounding up bootleggers and damn n------."
Dumas, Joseph Hill - Perry, Fla., 1962
Florida Governor Farris Bryant suspended constable Henry Sauls in connection with the shooting of 19-year-old Dumas. Sauls was indicted by a federal grand jury. The result of indictment is unclear.
Evans, Pheld - Canton, Miss., 1964
Charles Evers, the brother of slain NAACP official Medgar Evers, identified Evans as having been killed under mysterious circumstances.
Evanston, J.E. - Long Lake, Miss., 1955
Evanston's body is fished out of Long Lake in December. Evanston was a teacher in the local elementary school.
Greene, Mattie - Ringgold, Ga., 1960
Greene is killed when a bomb explodes under her house.
Greenwood, Jasper - Vicksburg, Miss., 1964
Greenwood was found shot to death near his car on a rural road. Police said the slaying was not racially motivated.
Griffith, Jimmie Lee - Sturgis, Miss., 1965
Griffin was killed in a hit-and-run accident. A coroner's report revealed Griffin was run over at least twice.
Hall, A.C. - Macon, Ga., 1962
Hall was shot and killed after a white woman claimed he stole a pistol from her car. He was shot by police as he ran away.
Hamilton, Rogers - Lowndes County, Ala., 1957
Hamilton, 19, was taken from his home by a group of white men and shot to death. Hamilton was allegedly warned to stay away from black girls in the town of Hayneville. No charges were brought in the case.
Hampton, Collie - Winchester, Ky., 1966
Hampton was shot by police officers after allegedly threatening a police officer.
Harris, Alphonso - Albany, Ga., 1966
Harris, a member of SCLC, died after allegedly organizing a walkout by black students at a school in Grenada, Miss. He was killed in Georgia in response to previous civil rights activity there.
Henry, Izell - Greensburg, La., 1954
Izell was brutally beaten a day after voting. He suffered permanent brain damage and died five years later.
Hill, Arthur James - Villa Rica, Ga., 1965
Hill was shot during an argument with whites. One suspect was held on voluntary manslaughter charge.
Hunter, Ernest - St. Mary's, Ga., 1958
Hunter was shot and killed while in jail following an arrest on charges he was interfering with an officer.
Jackson, Luther - Philadelphia, Miss., 1959
Jackson was killed by police after he and his girlfriend were found talking in their car, which was stalled in a ditch. Police claim Jackson attacked them.
Jells, Ernest - Clarksdale, Miss., 1964
Jells was accused of stealing a banana from a grocery and pointing a rifle at pursuing police officers. The officers were exonerated.
Jeter, Joe Franklin - Atlanta, Ga., 1958
Jeter was killed by police in front of his family, who were also arrested and convicted in connection with a gathering that police said turned into a melee. A grand jury found the slaying was justified.
Lee, John - Goshen Springs, Miss., 1965
Lee's body was found beaten on a country road.
Lee, Willie Henry - Rankin County, Miss., 1965
Lee, who was known to have attended civil rights meetings, was found beaten on a country road. An autopsy revealed he died by strangulation from gas.
Lillard, Richard - Nashville, Tenn., 1958
Lillard died after a beating from three white guards at a local workhouse. All three were acquitted of murder charges.
Love, George - Indianola, Miss., 1958
Love was killed in a gun battle with police who believed he was responsible for a murder and arson. He was later cleared of any connection to the murder.
Mahone, Maybelle - Molena, Ga., 1956
Mahone was killed by a white man for "sassing" him. The man was initially found guilty, but later found not guilty by reason of insanity.
Maxwell, Sylvester - Canton, Miss., 1963
Maxwell's castrated and mutilated body was found by his brother-in-law less than 500 yards from the home of a white family.
McNair, Robert - Pelahatchie, Miss., 1965
McNair was killed by a town constable.
Melton, Clinton - Sumner, Miss., 1956
Elmer Otis Kimbell was cleared in Melton's death. Kimbell claimed Melton fired at him three times before he returned fire with a shotgun. No gun was found in Melton's car or on his body.
Miller, James Andrew - Jackson, Ga., 1964
Miller was shot by whites a few days after being beaten. A suspect was cleared after the coroner ruled he fired in self-defense.
Mixon, Booker T - Clarksdale, Miss., 1959
Mixon's body was found lying on the side of the road, completely nude. Police claimed it was a hit-and-run, though family members cited his naked body and the extensive amount of flesh torn from his body as evidence of murder.
Montgomery, Nehemiah - Merigold, Miss., 1964
Montgomery, 60, was shot by police after allegedly refusing to pay for gas. Police were acquitted, and the shooting was called justifiable homicide.
Morris, Frank - Ferriday, La., 1964
Morris, who owned a shoe store, was killed when a gas stove exploded during an arson. Morris, who lived in a room adjoining the store, was ordered to return to his room by the men who started the fire. An extensive Justice Department investigation was conducted, but the outcome is unclear.
Motley, James Earl - Wetumpka, Ala., 1967
Elmore County Deputy Sheriff Harvey Conner was cleared in the death of Motley, who died in prison after suffering three severe blows to the head.
O'Quinn, Sam - Centreville, Miss., 1959
O'Quinn, derided by some local whites for being "uppity," was shot after joining the NAACP.
Payne, Larry - Memphis, Tenn., 1968
Payne, 16, was killed by a shotgun blast fired by a patrolman as he emerged from a basement in a housing development.
Pickett, C.H. - Columbus, Ga., 1957
The part-time minister was beaten to death while in police custody.
McPharland, Ernest - Monroe, La., 1960
A white employer was arrested and then released in the shooting of five of his employees, four of whom died. The victims were accused of making threats. The employer was never charged.
Powell, Jimmy - Brooklyn, N.Y., 1964
Powell, 15, was fatally shot by a Brooklyn police officer. The officer's exoneration by a grand jury sparked riots in Harlem.
Prather, William Roy - Corinth, Miss., 1959
Prather, 15, was killed in an anti-black Halloween prank. One of eight youths involved was indicted on manslaughter charges.
Queen, Johnny - Fayette, Miss., 1965
A white off-duty constable was named in the pistol slaying of Johnny Queen. The shooting was not connected to any arrest.
Rasberry, Donald - Okolona, Miss., 1965
Rasberry was shot to death by his plantation boss.
Robinson, Fred - Edisto Island, S.C., 1960
Robinson's body was found washed ashore on August 5. His eyes were reportedly gouged out and his skull crushed.
Robinson, Johnny - Birmingham, Ala., 1963
Robinson, 16, was shot in the back by a policeman on the same day as the 16th Street Church bombing. Police said the victim had thrown stones at white youths driving through the area.
Sanford, Willie Joe - Hawkinsville, Ga., 1957
Sanford's naked body was raised from the bottom of a creek where it had been wired to undergrowth in the water. The result of a grand jury investigation is unknown.
Scott Jr., Marshall - New Orleans, La., 1965
Scott was put into solitary confinement in a New Orleans jail. He died without receiving any medical attention. There were no arrests in the case.
Shelby, Jessie James - Yazoo City, Miss., 1956
Shelby, 23, was fatally wounded by a police officer who claimed he shot Shelby because he resisted arrest.
Singleton, W.G. - Shelby, N.C., 1957
Singleton died from third-degree burns suffered in an explosion and fire.
Smith, Ed - State Line, Miss., 1958
A grand jury refused to indict L.D. Clark in the death of Smith, who was shot in his yard in front of his wife. Clark later reportedly bragged about the killing.
Stewart, Eddie James - Crystal Springs, Miss., 1966
Stewart was reportedly beaten and shot while in police custody. Police claimed he was shot while trying to escape.
Taylor, Isaiah - Ruleville, Miss., 1964
Taylor was shot by a police officer after allegedly lunging at him with a knife. The shooting was ruled a justifiable homicide.
Thomas, Freddie Lee - LeFlore County, Miss., 1965
Federal investigators looked into the death of Thomas, 16. Thomas' brother believed he was murdered as a warning against black voter registration. The result of the investigation is unknown.
Triggs, Saleam - Hattiesburg, Miss., 1965
The body of Mrs. Triggs was found mysteriously burned to death.
Varner, Hubert - Atlanta, Ga., 1966
Varner, 16, was killed when a gunman fired into a group of black teenagers. The gunman allegedly believed the teenagers made a comment to his white companion. The result of a federal investigation is unknown.
Walker, Clifton - Adams County, Miss., 1964
Walker was killed by a shotgun blast at close range. The result of a federal investigation is unknown.
Waymers, James - Allendale, S.C., 1965
A white man is acquitted in the shooting death of Waymers after entering a plea of self-defense.
Wilder, John Wesley - Ruston, La., 1965
A white policeman was accused of Wilder's death, and a coroner's jury ruled the slaying was justifiable homicide.
Williamson, Rodell - Camden, Ala., 1967
Williamson's body was recovered from the Alabama River after it snagged on a fisherman's line. Williamson was active in the Wilcox Country branch of the NAACP, but local sheriff P.C. Jenkins said there were no signs of foul play.
Wooden, Archie - Camden, Ala., 1967
Wooden, 16, bled to death after either jumping or falling onto a sapling in a ditch. The cut sapling severed an artery. A newspaper report said the Mobile office of the FBI made a civil rights violation inquiry into the incident. The results of that inquiry are unknown.