The neo-Confederate movement includes a number of organizations that generally share the goals of preserving Confederate monuments, honoring the Confederate battle flag, and lauding what is judged to be "Southern" culture. Many have close ties to the white supremacist League of the South (LOS).

As the battle over removing the Confederate battle flag from atop the South Carolina Capitol heated up this year, leaders of relatively mainstream groups like the Heritage Preservation Association, the Sons of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy shared the podium with the likes of the LOS and the Council of Conservative Citizens — despite the latter groups' clearly expressed racism.

The political cross-pollination between these neo-Confederate organizations is also seen in the large number of cross-memberships among their leaders and activists.

American Renaissance
Oaktown, Va.

Edited by white separatist Jared Taylor, American Renaissance is a magazine with a highfalutin tone that links IQ levels to racial groups and promotes eugenics, the "science" of improving the human race through selective breeding.

Taylor, a board member of the racist Council of Conservative Citizens, has published widely on such topics, including two books: Paved with Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relations in Contemporary America and The Real American Dilemma: Race, Immigration and the Future of America.

His magazine promotes, among other things, the ideas that blacks have smaller brain capacity than whites and that they are inherently more violent than other races.

The New Century Foundation, which publishes American Renaissance, also hosts biennial conferences on the same themes, which increasingly are being taken up by neo-Confederates as well as open white supremacists. The most recent conference was held in March in Reston, Va., and focused on non-white immigration.

Attending were former Klansman David Duke; Steven Barry, the "military coordinator" of the neo-Nazi National Alliance; and Samuel Francis, an archconservative columnist fired from The Washington Times over a racially inflammatory column. Increasingly, American Renaissance is taking up issues dear to the hearts of neo-Confederates.

In the July edition, for instance, Francis has a cover story about the Confederate battle flag called "The War on White Heritage." In it, Francis argues that the debate over the flag concerns issues of "national and racial heritage" and shows whites must work together to "face common enemies and common threats to their rights, interests, identity and heritage as whites."

Confederate Society of America
Warrensburg, Mo.

Founded in 1992, the Confederate Society of America (CSA) claims to be the "FIRST southern nationalist organization, dedicated not only to preserving the Confederate heritage but to restoring the sovereignty of our [Southern] nation."

The CSA's leaders are tied to the League of the South and, especially, to the white supremacist Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC).

CSA President Craig Maus is a League member and former Virginia head of the CCC; Vice President Kenny Ashford was chairman of the CCC's Baton Rouge, La., chapter in 1998; and CSA founder and advisory director Jim Bitzer was a member of the CCC's national advisory council in 1994.

A principal plank of the CSA, which helped organize last January's pro-Confederate flag rally in Columbia, S.C., is opposition to paying reparations to the descendants of slaves. Slavery, the CSA says, "has absolutely no impact upon the current generation, other than that inflicted upon the minds of negroes and liberal whites by the General Government and the profiteers of racial division. In fact, these very same people are the modern enslavers."

Confederate States of America
Tallahassee, Fla.

The Confederate States of America (CSA), a group that hopes to recreate the government that lost the Civil War, is linked to both militia leaders and militia-derived ideology. The South, according to the CSA, is "an occupied nation just like those of the Soviet Union who [sic] are occupied by foreign forces."

The CSA wants to repeal all Constitutional amendments beyond the first 10 — meaning the citizenship of blacks, the right of women to vote and the federal income tax, among other things, would be withdrawn.

The CSA is led by long-time militia activists — both National Director of Operations (Interim) Rick Ainsworth and Secretary of Defense (Interim) Bill Cox were once leaders in the Southeastern States Alliance, a coalition of militia groups — and its rhetoric reflects that.

Rejecting the "New World Order" (which it terms the "New World Odor") and "federal tyranny," the CSA says it wants "to be the LEGAL (de jure) Government" and has vowed to create "forces to defend our citizens and sovereign states" to that end.

"Battle Flags," the CSA says of the Confederate banner, "should be held in reserve until hostilities begin."

Council of Conservative Citizens
St. Louis, Mo.

Proudly billing itself as "The True Voice of the American Right," the Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC) is the reincarnation of the White Citizens Councils that sprang up in the South of the 1950s and 1960s to oppose desegregation.

The CCC, which counts some 40 state legislators and other officials in its ranks, is a white supremacist group that focuses on issues like support for the Confederate battle flag and opposition to non-white immigration, school busing and affirmative action.

The 15,000-member group's CEO, Gordon Baum, has supported former Klansman David Duke in his bid to be governor of Louisiana. The council's main publication, Citizens Informer, is now edited by columnist Sam Francis and Chris Temple, who earlier worked for an anti-Semitic publication called The Jubilee.

The CCC shares many views with the League of the South — some of them detailed on a section of its Web site devoted to the "Fight for the Confederacy" — but not the League's desire that the South should again secede. The problem with secession, according to the CCC, is that it could lead to black domination.