False Patriots

Profiles of 40 antigovernment leaders

Reaching its peak in 1996, the antigovernment "Patriot" movement was a particular form of the American radical right that was characterized by paramilitary militias, opposition to gun control and the federal government, and belief in an array of conspiracy theories about the so-called "New World Order."

Patriots were drawn from all walks of life and though only some were explicitly racist, many of the key militants and ideologues of the movement had long histories of involvement in white supremacist groups.

In the late 1990s, Patriot groups began to dwindle as members left the movement, joined other kinds of radical groups, were imprisoned or, in a few cases, died in confrontations with law enforcement authorities.

Here, along with a timeline tracing the history of modern militias, are brief profiles of 40 people involved in the Patriot movement whose life stories over the last few years help illustrate the changing shape of the radical right.

Rick Answorth, 50

Elizabeth Broderick, 58

Donald Beauregard, 33

Steven Barry, 45

Don Cole, 31

William Cooper, 56

Helen Chenoweth, 62

Paul Darland, 29

Charles Duke, 58

Bob Fletcher, 57

Darrell Frech, 57

Brad Glover, 60

Larry Wayne Harris, 48

John Hassey, 50

Ted Gunderson, 73

Bo Gritz, 61

Carol Howe, 31

Michael Hill, deceased

Emilio Ippolito, 75

Mark Koernke, 42

J.J. Johnson, 39

Martin Lindstedt, 43

Ray Looker, 59

Rick McLaren, 47

Jack McLamb, 56

Norm Olson, 53

John Parsons, 51

Benton Partin, 74

Howard Phillips, 60

Larry Pratt, 58

Jeff Randall, 36

Dave Rydel, 51

Roy Schwasinger, 67

Eugene Schroder, 52

Jim Strode, 61

Leroy Schweitzer, 62

Chris Temple, 39

Linda Thompson, 48

John Trochmann, 57

Randy Weaver, 53